找工作:如何看懂公司给出的job offer

找工作:如何看懂公司给出的job offer

想当年肚子饿在下本人我毕业后找工作的那段时光,心理压力特别大,相信很多过来人也是心有戚戚焉吧!经过一段时间的心理煎熬,在拿到 job offer (录取通知) 那一刻的欣喜若狂还是历历在目。但是!被录取固然开心,但千万别好傻好天真,不仔细看就上工了。录取信 (Offer letter) 的各项条款都是具有合约性质与法律效力的,形容地戏剧化一点,这是「卖身契」的概念啊 >\\\< 

眼看最近又是毕业求职季,我就来和大家分享一下如何读懂offer letter,并掌握里头的各种「眉角」(要注意的细节)。有这么一句话:求职不只是公司选你,你更要选择公司!

录取信的内容架构

人资或主管确认录取你之后,就会发一封正式的 offer letter/package,大致含以下内容:

一、工作职称与内容、工时、到职日、直属部门与上司
二、工资、调薪与相关资讯
三、公司福利,包含带薪假、医疗保险、Bonus奖金和退休金计划等(Benefits)
四、其他条款,包括裁员/请辞/解聘等情况
五、员工手册,详细介绍关于公司各流程规定等

基本上各家公司的offer letter都是依照上述架构来书写,内容大同小异,接下来我就直接引用网路上的范例来做解释(来源:https://resources.workable.com/formal-offer-letter-template

第一部分:基本讯息

Dear [(1)你的名字],

We’re delighted to extend this offer of employment for the position of [(2)工作职位] with [(3)公司名]. Please review this summary of terms and conditions for your anticipated employment with us.

If you accept this offer, your start date will be [(4)到职日] or another mutually agreed upon date and you would report to [(5)直属上司名].

Please find below the terms and conditions of your employment, should you accept this offer letter:

Position. Your title will be [(6)工作职称], and you will report to the Company’s [(7)直属上司职称]. This is a [(8)正职/兼职/实习] position. (9) While you are employed at this Company, you will not engage in any other employment, consulting or other business activity (whether full-time or part-time) that would create a conflict of interest with the Company. (10) By signing this letter of agreement, you confirm that you have no contractual commitments or other legal obligations that would prohibit you from performing your duties for the Company.

Offer letter第一段开门见山地告诉你恭喜你被录取了,这一段注意几点:

1.  你的名字(确认这是给你的录取信,以及拼法有没有拼对)
2-3 & 5-7. 工作职位、公司名、直属部门与上司(和当初面试时谈得是否一致,若有出入请提问)
4. 到职日(若有签证问题,这点要特别确认)
8. 工作是正职、兼职还是实习
9. 受雇期间约束的个人行为,例如上面例子就禁止私下从事与公司利益冲突的其他工作,即使兼职也不可
10. 必须签署这份合约确认你没有其他合约/法律关系禁止你上这份工

注:有些公司可能还会列出大致的工作职责与内容

第二部分:工资薪酬

(1) Cash Compensation. The Company will pay you a starting salary at the rate of $[年薪] per year, payable in accordance with the Company’s standard payroll schedule, beginning [到职日] and you will receive your first pay [日期]. This salary will be subject to adjustment pursuant to the Company’s employee compensation policies in effect from time to time.

(2) Bonus (or Commission) potential. In addition, you will be eligible to be considered for an incentive bonus for each fiscal year of the Company. The bonus (if any) will be awarded based on objective or subjective criteria established by the Company’s Chief Executive Officer and approved by the Company’s Board of Directors. Your target bonus will be equal to [百分比]% of your annual base salary. Any bonus for the fiscal year in which your employment begins will be prorated, based on the number of days you are employed by the Company during that fiscal year. Any bonus for a fiscal year will be paid within [月份数] months after the close of that fiscal year, but only if you are still employed by the Company at the time of payment. The determinations of the Company’s Board of Directors with respect to your bonus will be final and binding.

(3) Hours and Compensation. This is a [正职/兼职/实习] position requiring approximately [每周工时] hours per week.

这一部份通常是最吸睛的部分,因为谈到了工资与薪水给付等问题。

1. 信中会告知你的起薪年薪(兼职通常是写时薪),而公司的给付日程为何(是双周给付一次、每月给付一次,又是在周几会入帐)。此外注意公司的调薪制度,通常是一年评鉴一次,调幅多半非固定且不会在信中列出,而是看公司状况/个人表现而异。

2. 公司是否有Bonus/Comission绩效奖金/佣金制度,这部分对业务性质的工作更是重要。注意发放奖金的制度,包括发放频率(月/季/年)、条件(客观的业绩达成率?主观的主管决定?)、计算方式(也许是年薪的百分之多少、有没有上限)、起始与发放时间(从到职日开始?到职三个月后开始?发放时间?)与其他相关规定(若在发放奖金前离职的话还能不能领到奖金?)

3. 工时。通常会明文订下每周工作时数,还有超时工作(Overtime)的话是否给付加班费。有两个词汇要认得:责任制(Exempt)通常不会订时数,且为薪水制(Salary),不用打卡, 公司不用付加班费;非责任制(Non-exempt) 通常为时薪制(Hourly),若超时工作,法律规定一定要付时薪1.5倍的加班费给时薪制员工。

图片来自网路
第三部分:公司福利

Employee Benefits. As a regular employee of the Company, you will be eligible to participate in a number of (1)Company-sponsored benefits. In addition, you will be entitled to (2)paid vacation in accordance with the Company’s vacation policy.

The Company offers a comprehensive employee benefits program, including:

[(同1) 列举公司福利]

(3)Stock Options. Subject to the approval of the Company’s Board of Directors or its Compensation Committee, and following the adoption by the Company of an equity incentive plan, you will be granted an option to purchase [数量] shares of the Common Stock of the Company or of its parent (the “Option”). The exercise price per share of the Option will be determined by the Board of Directors or the Compensation Committee when the Option is granted. The Option will be subject to the terms and conditions applicable to options granted under the Company’s Stock Plan (as adopted, the “Plan”), as described in the Plan and the applicable Stock Option Agreement. You will vest in 25% of the Option shares after 12 months of continuous service, and the balance will vest in equal monthly installments over the next 36 months of continuous service, as described in the applicable Stock Option Agreement.

1. 公司福利。通常包括医疗保险、寿险、花费补助和退休金计划等。这部分也要张大眼睛仔细看清楚,正职员工大多能享受到更多更完整的福利,不过福利生效日期可能有一定规定,比如说入职三个月后才生效,端看各公司规定。

1-1. 保险:最常见的就是医疗保险(Medical Insurance)、牙齿保险(Dental Insurance),另外可能还有眼睛保险(Eye/Vision Care Insurance)、寿险(Life Insurance)、意外险(Accident Insurance)、COBRA(如果因为突然失业或换工作等有一段时期没有保险cover时,还会继续提供保险,但保费会稍高一些)等等。业主都会与特定一家保险公司合作,规模越大的公司通常提供的保险计划选择越多,你可以依据自身情况来选购(不知道什么是PPO/HMO?搞不懂收费项目?可以看这一篇)。公司会给付大部分的保险费用,员工只需负担一小部分,从每一期的工资扣除。

1-2. 401(k)退休金计划:这是由企业主导,公司与员工共同出资的非强制性企业补充养老保险制度。公司会帮员工设立专户,员工可以选择提拨一定比例的薪水到这个户头(且可延迟纳税),户头里的钱可选择投资标的,赚取盈利不会上税。这一部份主要看公司是否有提供;有提供的话,公司会匹配(match)多少比例。比如说薪水1000元,公司匹配5%,也就是当你提拨$50时,公司会再另外加码$50(大多有金额上限)。更多关于401k制度的说明,可以参考咕噜网友的教学:认识美国退休金计划401K、IRA、Roth IRA

1-3. 费用报销:英文是Reimbursement,常见的报销项目为杂费支出(购买办公用品等等)、出差花费、租车/油钱/停车费、手机通信费用等等,甚至还有健身房补助!有些公司会鼓励员工利用闲暇时间进修,因此会全额补助或按比例补助学费,并有金额上限。

1-4. 公司设施:健身房、康乐室、午餐室/自助餐厅、还有其他各种设施仪器等等提供员工使用。若公司内有餐厅,员工可能可以免费享用所有餐点,或是日额补助。

1-5. 搬迁补助(Relocation bonus)&签约奖金(Sign-on bonus):多见于为了工作而从外州/国外搬来的高层员工,有可能是实报实销,也有可能是一次性的一笔奖金金额。

2. 休假制度。在美国通常都是每年十天带薪假(Paid time off, PTO),有些公司会随年资增加而增加带薪假天数,即使没有,基本上都有十天。有些公司会另外给与病假/事假/丧假制度,但有些可能就要你用有薪假来请具体的请假规定还是因公司而异,比如病假必须出示医生证明,或是丧假长短视你与逝者的关系而定。另外请假时是以时数计还是天数计也可以注意一下。(多数公司离职时可以把没有休完的PTO兑换成现金cash out,但是这笔钱课的税不轻喔。)

3. Stock Options是期权,大致就是让员工先用一个协议好的价格事先购买公司股票,且可以购买指定数量,在一段时间之后才会被授与(vest)行使期权,才能够进行股票买卖获利等。以上面为例,必须在公司连续服务满一年后才能行使25%的期权,而剩余部分会月均分配到接下来三年当中。这就是公司防止员工跳槽的手段之一啊!另外有些公司可能会给员工股票(大多数科技公司是直接给年终分红),也有员工股票购买计划(ESPP, Employee Stock Purchase Plan/ESOP, Employee Stock Ownership Plan)让员工可以用员工价,通常是10%-15%的折扣来购买股票。不过公司可能会进一步规定可以自主买卖股票的时间点(当然是用来留住员工)等。

注:股票这部分还希望有经验与更多了解的大大们分享传授!小鲁妹深夜肚子饿自己从来没有拿过,所以只懂皮毛XD

图片来自网路
第四部分:其他条款

Employment Relationship. Employment with the Company is for no specific period of time. Your employment with the Company will be (1)“at will,” meaning that either you or the Company may terminate your employment at any time and for any reason, with or without cause. Any contrary representations that may have been made to you are superseded by this letter agreement. This is the full and complete agreement between you and the Company on this term. Although your job duties, title, compensation and benefits, as well as the Company’s personnel policies and procedures, may change from time to time, the “at will” nature of your employment may only be changed in an express written agreement signed by you and a duly authorized officer of the Company (other than you).

Termination. (2)The Company reserves the right to terminate employment of any employee for just cause at any time without notice and without payment in lieu of notice. The Company will be entitled to terminate your employment for any reason other than for just cause, upon providing to you such minimum notice as required by law.

(3) Privacy. You are required to observe and uphold all of the Company’s privacy policies and procedures as implemented or varied from time to time. Collection, storage, access to and dissemination of employee personal information will be in accordance with privacy legislation.

1. 睁大眼睛看清楚 "at will" 这个字眼,这个几乎会用于所有美国公司的离职条款,意指「随我爽」XD,反正就是基于劳动市场的自由雇用原则,你可以在任何时间因为任何理由想走人就走人。但根据我的经验,虽然是at will原则,基于人情留一线日后好相见的道理,礼貌上都会事先告知主管要离职,并提交2-week notice。

2. 同理,既然你想走就走,公司也可以想解雇你就解雇你。大家应该都听过美国裁员是一眨眼的事情,早上还像往常一样进公司,收到裁员通知之后十五分钟内就得打包走人,还会被警卫护着离开 :/ 

3. 保密条款。不能透露/散播公司内部的资讯,反之公司也不能透露你的个人资讯。

其他常见的条款还包括竞业禁止协议

Non-compete:有些行业不只禁止员工在雇佣期间不能从事与公司利益冲突的行业,甚至连离职后也禁止。不过这项条款在特定一段期间和特定一个地点有效。(比如说离职后三个月内,和公司同个州)

Non-solicit:离职后不能把公司其他员工和客户带到新公司去。

好啦,offer letter的解析大致就写到这边,小鲁妹肚子饿其实也才工作四年多,并不是什么身经百战的求职达人,却非常能懂社会新鲜人的心情。看懂offer只是能够帮助你做出选择的一个辅助,你是否真心喜欢这份工作内容、是不是真的能在这份职位上发挥所长,也是不可忽略的衡量关键喔。

「求职不只是公司选你,你更要选择公司」,共勉之~~祝大家求职顺利!

收藏 ({{saved_count}})
点赞 ({{liked_count}})
脸书分享
微信分享

0条评论